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Links to African-American History & Culture

National African American Museums

National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution 

Two-story house symbolizing freedom for former slaves to be displayed in new museum, by Michael Ruane, Washington Post, 8-23-16

From the Underground Railroad to the African American Museum, Washington Post 


State of Maryland African American Museums

Reginald Lewis Museum of African American History & Culture, Baltimore 

Banneker-Douglass Museum, Annapolis 

Maryland Commission on African American History and Culture, 2021 Annual Report 

Benjamin Banneker Historical Park & Museum, Catonsville 


Museums and Memorials in Other States

The National Memorial for Peace and Justice, Montgomery, AL

International African American Museum, Charleston, SC



Juneteenth History information, National Museum of African American History and Culture 

The Historical Legacy of Juneteenth, National Museum of African American History and Culture

The Long History of Our New Federal Holiday: Juneteenth, United States Capitol Historical Society

Juneteenth National Independence Day 

Juneteenth, National Park Service

What is Juneteenth?

Public Law 11-17, June 17, 2021, An Act to designate Juneteenth National Independence Day as a Legal Public Holiday


Underground Railroad

Underground Railroad, National Park Service 

Maryland’s underground railroad: network to freedom brochure, Maryland Office of Tourism 


Emancipation Proclamation

The Emancipation Proclamation, National Park Service


Press releases regarding Scotland history, 2019 exhibit at American University 

Plans to Prosper exhibit catalog, American University 

“Montgomery County Reflections: Honoring African-American Communities in Montgomery County, Maryland, 2020”: 

Freedmen and Southern Society Project

Documents from Freedom: A Documentary History of Emancipation, 1861-1867, Freedmen and Southern Society Project


African American History and Genealogical Organizations

List of Montgomery County African-American history organizations and resources 

Afro-American Historical and Genealogical Society, Montgomery County chapter 


Heritage Montgomery (Heritage Tourism Alliance of Montgomery County)

Heritage Montgomery (Heritage Tourism Alliance of Montgomery County)

Maryland Heritage Areas Program 

Maryland Heritage Areas Coalition 

Heritage Tourism Alliance of Montgomery County, Maryland Heritage Areas Boundary Amendment 2018 


Maps of  Montgomery County-Designated African American Historic Sites and Districts

Montgomery County history in the parks 

Interactive Map of County-Designated African American Historic Sites and Districts Launched to Honor Black History 

"Crossroads and Culture,” African-American Heritage, Montgomery County, MD map and infographic, HeritageMontgomery 

Montgomery County Parks - Designated Historic Sites and Museums

Montgomery County Parks, Planning & Stewardship, contact info 

Josiah Henson Museum and Park 

Josiah Henson Museum and Park 

Button Farm Living History Center program description 

Josiah Henson Museum and Park, program overview and video 

Montgomery Parks Opens Newly Completed Josiah Henson Museum and Park on April 23, 2021, Montgomery Parks 

The Riley House, Josiah Henson Site, Historic Structure Report 

The Riley House, Josiah Henson Site, Historic Structure Report Appendices 


African American Cemeteries and Burial Sites - Identification, Preservation and Protection

Perpetual Neglect: The Preservation Crisis of African-American Cemeteries, by Zach Mortice, Places journal, May 2017 

The Fight to Preserve African-American History: activists and preservationists are changing the kinds of places that are protected-and what it means to preserve them, New Yorker, 2-27-20 

Even in Death, Black Americans Have Been Denied the Right to Rest in Peace, Greg Melville guest opinion article in February 15, 2023 New York Times 

Black cemeteries are crucially important – and all too often neglected, Washington Post, May 19, 2017 

Over My Dead Body: Unearthing the Hidden History of America’s Cemeteries, by Greg Melville 

Historic African American Cemeteries, Maryland Commission on African American History & Culture & Maryland Historical Trust, Report to the Chairman of the Senate Budget and Taxation Committee and House Appropriations Committee, June 30, 2022 

HB 1099, Historic African American Cemeteries Preservation Fund and Study, 2021 State Legislature, not enacted 

Coalition to Project Maryland Burial Sites 

Montgomery Preservation, Burial Sites issue 

Finding Lost Cemeteries in Montgomery County, The Third Place, Montgomery County Planning blog 

Montgomery County burial inventory geographic inventory system (GIS) map, Montgomery Planning 

Montgomery County Burial Sites Inventory Update, report to Montgomery County Planning Board, May 18, 2021 

Montgomery County Burial Sites Inventory Update 2022, Montgomery Planning 

Montgomery County cemetery inventory project revisited, Montgomery Planning 

African American Burial Grounds Preservation Program Created in Omnibus Bill, Coalition for American Heritage, December 21, 2022 

Montgomery Parks Cemetery Program: Burial Sites in Montgomery County 

Montgomery County Archaeology Program 

Historic Cemeteries information sheet, Maryland Historical Trust 

Battlefield of memory: Asphalt where a black cemetery is said to have stood, Washington Post, April 14, 2017 

Paving over black history in Montgomery County, Washington Post, April 14, 2017 

The River Road Moses Cemetery, A Historic Preservation Evaluation, by Dr. David Rotenstein, 2018 

Tracing a Bethesda, Maryland African American Community and its Contested Cemetery, article by David Kathan, Amy Rispin and L. Paige Whitley, Washington History, Vol. 29, no 2 (Fall 2017) 

Opinion: Protecting a Piece of Maryland History from the State's Beltway Expansion Plan, Maryland Matters, 4-09-21

African American Burials in St. Mary's are among Maryland's oldest, Washington Post, June 18, 2023


Maryland African American Heritage Grant Programs

African American Heritage Grants Program, Maryland Historical Trust 

African American Cultural Heritage Action Fund: Tell the Whole Story, National Trust for Historic Preservation 

Race in America, History Matters, Washington Post, 2-02-23 transcript, Robin Givhan with Brent Leggs, National Trust for Historic Preservation 


Slavery and the Anti-Slavery Movement in Maryland, Research

Legacy of Slavery in Maryland, State Archives of Maryland 

Slavery and Freedom in Maryland, a guide to the history of slavery in Maryland to the Civil War, University of Maryland 

A Guide to the History of Slavery in Maryland, 2020 revised edition, Maryland State Archives

Frederick Douglass, Documents for the Classroom, Maryland State Archives

Manumissions, Maryland State Archives, Guide to Government Records

How a Grad Student Uncovered the Largest Unknown Slave Market in the United States, by Jennifer Berry Hawkes, ProPublica, June 16, 2023


Freedmen's Bureau

The Freedmen's Bureau Records, National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian

The Freedmen's Bureau, National Archives and Records Administration

Freedmen's Bureau, Records of the Field Offices for the State of Maryland and Delaware, 1865-1872, National Archives and Records Administration

Publication No.: M-803, Records of the Education Division of the Bureau of Regugee. Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865-1871

The Freedmen's Bureau and Education in Maryland, W.A. Low, Maryland Historical Society, Volume XLVII, March 1952


Maryland African American Travel Guides

Maryland’s African American travel guide, Maryland Office of Tourism

Traveling in His Footsteps: Frederick Douglass driving tour, Maryland Office of Tourism 


Research Materials for African American History in Montgomery County, MD

Researching African American Families at the Maryland State Archives, Phebe Jacobsen

African American Resources, Maryland State Archives

Description of African American Records at the Maryland State Archives

Researching the Enslaved in Maryland, Robyn Smith, Heritage Montgomery

Research resources for African American history, Heritage Montgomery 

African American History, Other Organizations and Resources, Montgomery History

The Historic African American River Road Connections collection, curated by American University library 

Afro-American Historical and Genealogical Society, Montgomery County chapter 

African American Research Resources in Maryland, FamilySearch Project, Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints 

Black Builders in Montgomery County 1865-1940, by Eileen McGuckian, Montgomery County Historical Society. February 1992

Medusa, Maryland’s Cultural Resource Information System, searchable 

African American History: Sween Library and Special Collections Resources, Montgomery History

African American Gateway research sources, ACPL Gateway

A Historical Bibliography of the Built Environment in the Washington, DC Metropolitan Area, Including Montgomery and Prince George's Counties, Maryland, and Alexandria and Arlington and Fairfax Counties, Virginia, compiled by Richard Longstreth, April 21, 2019

Black Historical Resources in Upper Western Montgomery County, by George McDaniel (Rockville, MD, Montgomery County Government and Sugarloaf Regional Trails, 1979)

Maryland Center for History and Culture, Baltimore (numerous online research materials) (NOTE - MCHC collects, preserves, and interprets the history, art and culture of Maryland. Originally founded as the Maryland Historical Society in 1844, MCHC inspires critical thinking, creativity and community by exploring multiple perspectives and sharing national stories through the lens of Maryland.) 


Maryland Lynching Truth and Reconciliation Commission

Maryland Lynching Truth and Reconciliation Commission 

"The Unwritten Law of Maryland": The 1896 Lynching of Sidney Randolph, by Sarah Hedlund, The Montgomery County Story (Montgomery County's Periodical for Historical Research), Fall 2021, Vol. 64, No. 2


African American Interdisciplinary Research & Techniques

UMD Professor [Cheryl LaRoche] Discusses Her Work to Uplift Black History, The Black Explosion Newspaper, May 17, 2022     

Sugarland Ethno-History Project 

Sugarland Ethno-History Project, History Associates Incorporated (HAI) information sheet 


Civil Rights Movement

Gibbs v. Broome, Rockville's Place on the Road to Brown v. Board of Education, by Sharyn Duffin and Alonzo Smith, The Montgomery Coounty Story (Montgomery County's Periodical for Historical Research), Winter 2020, Vol. 62, No 2

Letter from a Birmingham Jail, Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, April 16, 1963

The Modern Civil Rights Movement in the National Capital Area timeline, National Park Service 

A Summer of Change: The Civil Rights Story of Glen Echo Park, National Park Service

The Civil Rights Movement, Segregation & Slavery in Maryland – A Reading List, Maryland Historical Trust 

Civil Rights and Wrongs in Montgomery County in 2008, by Wayne Goldstein, The Montgomery County Sentinel, January 24, 2008


Social Justice

Continuing on a Path Toward Social Justice [Tina Clarke, Poolesville], Washington Post, September 6, 2001 

When Architecture and Justice Intersect, Architectural Digest article, June 8, 2020

County poised to erase Confederate references from streets, facilities, by Briana Adhikusuma, Bethesda Magazine, Decembej 8, 2020

Sounds of Silence Slam the Door on the African American Historic Sites Project, The Monocacy Monocle, June 18, 2021 

NPC 22: Renaming Montgomery County's Streets, Montgomery County Planning Board, May 1, 2022

Buildings That Can Heal in the Wake of Trauma: Buildings of the emerging architectural movelent called trauma-informed design see buildings as "the first line of therapy," Bloomberg City Lab/Design, Zack Mortice, April 10, 2023

Walking the Way of Harriet Tubman: Public Mystic and Freedom Fighter, by Therese Taylor-Stinson


Racism in Montgomery County, MD & the Nation

A Shameful Past, article by Eugene Meyer, Bethesda Magazine, 2021 

The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story, Nicole Hannah Jones 

The 1619 Project and the Demands of Public History, New Yorker, Lauren Michelle Jackson, December 8, 2021

You cannot love America and avoid the topic of race, Theodore Johnson, Washington Post, April 12, 2023

When the Stars Begin to Fall: Overcoming Racism and Renewing the Promise of America, Theodore R. Johnson

The Latent Racism of the Better Homes in America Program 


Regional African American Heritage Studies in MD/DC/VA

How the Word is Passed: A Reckoning with the History of Slavery Across America, Clint Smith (book)

On a tour of historical sites, examining how the story of slavery is taught, Martha Anne Toll, The Washington Post, June 6, 2021

Historic Resources Study, African American Communities, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, Washington DC and Lower Montgomery County, October 27, 2022 

The enslaved artisan behind Thomas Jefferson's newly restored Va. estate, J Michael Welton, The Washington Post, April 24, 2023

"They Have Errected a Neat Little Church," The Rural African American Experience, 1865-1900, in the National Capital Area, National Park Service

Built by the People Themselves - African Amierican Community Development in Arlington, Virginia, from the Civil War Through Civil Rights, George Mason University PhD dissertation by Lindsay Besttebreurtje, Spring Semester, 2017

Historic Resource Study of African American Schools in the South, 1865-1900


Negro Motorist Green Book

The Negro Motorist Green Book exhibition, Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service in collaboration with Candacy Taylor, on-line exhibit 

The Architecture of The Negro Travelers’ Green Book, state of Maryland, Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, University of Virginia 

Establishments that served the Black community in Montgomery County in 1958, Montgomery County Media, February 22, 2019 


Poor People's Campaign 1968

City of Hope, Resurrection City and the 1968 Poor People’s Campaign, Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service and National Museum of African American History and Culture, poster exhibition 


Black History Month Commemorations in Montgomery County, MD

Preserving the Past and Educating for the Future, A Commemoration for Black History Month, Montgomery County, Maryland, George McDaniel, February 27, 2018 

Anita Neal Powell Receives 2020 Roscoe Nix Award for Distinguished Community Service, Montgomery County 


Black Religious History

A brief overview of Black religious history in the U.S., Pew Research Center, February 16, 2021


History of Scotland Community

Scotland Community, Montgomery County, Maryland, Wikipedia entry

"A Poor Community Repels Invaders: New Community Planned Cleanup Campaign Rezoning Needed Improved Study Facilities," by Andrew Barnes, The Washington Post, March 22, 1966

"US Loan Assures Scotland Housing," by Peter Winterble, The Washington Post, August 6, 1967

Scotland Photo Gallery, Joyce Siegel, 1960-1970

"Last Portion of Scotland Renewal Set," The Washington Post and Times-Herald, October 8, 1970

The Scotland of the Doves, Washington Post, January 14, 2007 

"Hope Growing in Scotland Community: Condemnation Threatened Lederal Loans Sought, by Douglas Walter, The Washington Post and Times-Herald

Civil Rights and Wrongs in Montgomery County in 2008, by Wayne Goldstein, The Montgomery County Sentinel, January 24, 2008

Joyce Siegel collection, Montgomery County Historical Society

Joyce B. Siegel, Wikipedia entry

Oral history of Edgar Dove, Montgomery History

Guide to Oral History of Geneva Mason, Montgomery History

"Negro Town is Reborn in Suburb: Ground-Breaking Marks Rebirth of Negro Town," by Claudia Levy, The Washington Post, April 22, 1986

"The Resurrection of Scotland," by Harvey A. Levine, The Montgomery County Story, Vol. 43, No. 2, May 2000, Montgomery County Historical Society

"Save Our Scotland: An oral history with Joyce B. Siegel," by Nikki Hauspurg, interviewed, Dreyfuss Library, St. Andrews Episcopal School, OH HAU, 2004

"Generations of Residents Settle Down in Scotland," by Janet Rathner, The Washington Post, June 18, 2005

Interview with Betty Thompson, Bethesda Magazine, September 26, 2010

Rich History, Development Define Scotland Community, Patch article, February 7, 2011 

"Promise Delivered: Scotland's New Center," by Ken Moore, Potomac Almanac, Connection, Newspapers, April 3, 2013

"Scotland Recreation Center Ribbon Cutting Ceremony" photos, Sonya Burke, Montgomery Media, November 1, 2014

Bette Thompson, activist who helped transform black Md. enclave, dies at 80, by Breanne Deppisch, Washington Post, February 5, 2016

Affordable MD Townhomes Undergoing $14M Rehab,

Out from the Shadows: Montgomery County's Historic Black Communities are The Focus of New Exhibit, WAMU story, July 30, 2019

Plans to Proster You: Reflections of Black Resistance and Resilience in Montgomery County's Potomac River Valley, American University press release

Plans to Prosper You exhibit catalog

County poised to erase Confederate references from streets, facilities, by Briana Adhikusuma, Bethesda Magazine, December 8, 2020

"Montgomery County to rename 3 Potomac Streets after Black historical figures," by Mark Murillo, WTOP News

County chooses new names for Potomac streets, will no longer honor Confederate leaders, by Caitlyn Peetz, Bethesda Magazine, June 21, 2021

NPC 22: Renaming Montgomery County's Streets, Montgomery County Planning Board, May 1, 2022

"Confederate streets in Potomac renamed after black historical figures Geneva Mason and William Dove, by Madison Well-James, The Sentinet, August 4, 2021

Exhibit Shares History of Scotland, One of County’s Earliest African American Communities, Montgomery Media, February 28, 2022 

Scotland Community Seeks to Thrive Again, Montgomery Community Media, February 7 2023 

Organizers hope to hit a home run with Montgomery County's Juneteenth plans, by john Kelly, The Washington Post, April 24, 2023

Scotland Juneteenth Heritage Festival, Juneteenth Week Schedule of Events

Resurrection: After a Devastating Flood, A Communty Reunites to Rebuild Scotland African American Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, Bethesda Magazine digital edition, May June 2023, pp. 157-161

Realizing A Dream: Providing Opportunity Though Education, Sharyn R. Duffin, Peerless Rockville


Scotland AME Zion Church

Maryland Historical Trust State Historic Sites Inventory Form, Scotland AME Zion Church

Scotland AME Zion Church, historic structure report, EHT Traceries 

Church Damaged by Flood in Potomac: Historic Scotland AME Zion Church hopes to rebuild in the future, by Pegy McEwan,Community Newspapers, July 23, 2020

A Day of Praise: Historic African American Church in Potomac readies for renovation, by Christine Zhu, MoCo360, July 8 2022

Montgomery County church rich in African American history working to rebuild, WUSA9, Jess Arnold, June 13, 2023

Celebrate Juneteenth in DC. Maryland and Virginia with festivals, exhibits and Emapcipation Day Proclamation, WRC 4 TV, June 12, 2023


Lincoln Park History Project

Lincoln Park History Project, Montgomery County Public Library 

Lincoln Park Historical Foundation, Inc.


Historic Black Communities, Schools and Churches in Montgomery County, MD

Uncover a heritage of heroes in Montgomery County, Maryland, WP Creative Group, September 24, 2021

African American History: Communities and Schools, Montgomery History 

The Segregated Black Schools of Montgomery County, compiled by Ralph Buglass in collaboration with Sharyn Duffin, Montgomery History 

Emory Grove United Methodist Church history 

Maryland Historical Trust, Guest Blog: The Montgomery County Emory Grove, by Morgan Miller-Scarborough, Independent Historian

Emory Grove Finds Urban Renewal Bittersweet, Washington Post, June 30, 1980

A Century of One- and Two-Room Schools, Teaching Yet Today, by Ralph Buglass, Montgomery County Story, Fall, 2015 

Historic African American Community 'Gibson Grove: Gone But Not Forgotten' Will Be Featured in Montgomery History Free Online Presentation That Will Be Available Starting 11-21-22

Gibson Grove: Gone But Not Forgotten, the Archaeology of an African American Church, Alexandra Jones, PhD Dissertation, University of California Berkeley

Paths to the Present, Montgomery History, links to all videos, 2000 – 2016 

Jerusalem Baptist Church, Poolesville

Community Cornerstones: African American churches in Montgomery County, Maryland, brochure

Sandy Spring Museum exhitits, collections and archives

Boyds Negro School, the only public school for Black children in the region from 1895=1936

Historically Black Communities of Sandy Spring, Sandy Spring Museum

Historic Context Report “A harvest in the Open for Saving Souls” The Camp Meetings of Montgomery County, by Elizabeth Jo Lampl and Clare Lise Kelly, Momtgomery County Planning Department, Historic Preservation Section, 2004 

Black towns, established by freed slaves after the Civil War, are dying out, by DeNeen L. Brown, Washington Post, March 27, 2015 (NOTE - includes information about Sugarland Ethno-history project)

Sugarland's Story, by Gwen Reese and Suzanne johnson, The Montgomery County Story, Montgomery County Historical Society, Spring 2010, Volume 53, Number 1


Rockville African American Historic Proprties

Realizing A Dream: Providing Opportunity Though Education, Sharyn R. Duffin, Peerless Rockville

Early Rockville Walking Tour, online interactive map

Early Rockville Walking Tour, brochure

Rockville African American Walking Tour, online interactive map

Rockville African American Walking Tour, brochure


Oral History Resources & Storytelling Toolkits

National Museum of African American History & Culture, Hometown Treasures Toolkit for Groups & Organizations 

Smithsonian Institution, Museum on Main Street Storytelling Toolkit 

Principles for Oral Histories and  Best Practices for Oral History, Oral History Organization

A Treasury of Artifacts of Black Life, Washington Post, February 24, 2005 (focuses on Leroy E. Neal African American Research Center)

African American Family Histories and Related Works at the Library of Congress, compiled by Paul Connor, updated by Ahmed Johnson, 2009 

Generations Past: A Selected List for Afro-American Genealogical Research, complied by Sandra Lawson, Library of Congress 

Montgomery History: African American History, Other Organizations 

The Montgomery County Historical Society Oral History Program 


Oral Histories with Prominent Individuals

Guide to Oral History of Geneva Mason, Montgomery History

"Save Our Scotland: An oral history with Joyce B. Siegel," by Nikki Hauspurg, interviewed, Dreyfuss Library, St. Andrews Episcopal School, OH HAU, 2004

Oral history of Edgar Dove, Montgomery History


African American Benevolent Societies

Benevolent Societies, Cemeteries, Hold Clues to Locations of Early Black Communities in Montgomery County, Montgomery County Historic Preservation Program “The Third Place” blog, October 23, 2020 


Black Baseball Teams in Montgomery County, MD

Councilmember Riemer Announces Plans to Restore Legendary Black Baseball Field in Emory Grove," Montgomery County Council, June 10, 2022

The Rise of Black Baseball Teams During Segregation in Montgomery County,' by Erin Roby, Bethesda Magazine and Bethesda Beat, June 13, 2022

Restoration Planned at Former Negro League Field in Gaithersburg, by Suzanne Pollak, Montgomery Coumunity Media, June 13, 2022

Black Baseball in Norbeck, by Julianne Mangin, The Montgomery County Story (Montgomery County's Periodical for Historical Research), Spring 2023, Volume 66, No. 1


Restorative History Initiatives

Center for Restorative History, National Museum of American History

Restorative History Explained, National Museum of American History



New NEH (National Endowment for the Humanities) Interpretive Planning Grants at Smaller Organizations

Preservation Maryland Heritage Fund Grants

Thomas V Mike Miller History Fund (assistance for projects at museums, historical societies, libraries and other repositories throughout Maryland)

The Preservationist, newsletter of Montgomery County Historic Preservation Commission, 2001-2019 

The Book of Lost Friends: A Novel, by Lisa Wingate

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